A Prospective Approach to Prevent From COVID-19

      Your nose bears the nostrils and nasal passages, and is the first organ of the respiratory and olfactory systems. It functions for breathing and the sense of smell, and is first entrance of respiratory defense against infections. Sneezing/coughing can transmit infections, because aerosols are created in which the droplets can harbor pathogens. There two main parts inside your nose, Nasal Cavity and Sinuses:

      Nasal Cavity: The nasal septum divides the cavity into two cavities. It’s internal is lined with respiratory epithelium as nasal mucosa, while in the roof of each cavity is an area of specialized olfactory epithelium. When breathing, a sudden change in the speed and pressure of the airflow creates turbulence which allows optimum contact with the respiratory epithelium for the necessary warming, moisturising, and filtering, as well as movement of the air to pass over the olfactory epithelium and transfer odour information to brain.

      Nasal Sinuse: The mucosa that lines the nasal cavity extends into its chambers, the nasal sinuses. The nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses are referred to as the sinonasal tract or sinonasal region, and its anatomy is recognised as being unique and complex. Four paired paranasal sinuses – the frontal sinus, the sphenoid sinus, the ethmoid sinus and the maxillary sinus drain into regions of the nasal cavity. The sinuses are air-filled extensions of the nasal cavity into the cranial bones. The frontal sinuses are located in the frontal bone; the sphenoidal sinuses in the sphenoid bone; the maxillary sinuses in the maxilla; and the ethmoidal sinuses in the ethmoid bon. A narrow opening called a sinus ostium from each of the nasal sinuses allows drainage into the nasal cavity. he increased numbers of cilia and the narrowness of the sinus openings allow for an increased time for moisturising, and warming.

COVID-19 and Your Nose

      COVID-19 is a new respiratory infection disease caused an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has since spread globally, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. According to the World Health Organization (World Health Organization (WHO), 17 April 2020), there are no available vaccines or specific antiviral treatments for COVID-19. The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact, most often via produced by coughing, sneezing, and talking. Less commonly, people may become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their nose and face.

      The pathways of spread and currently recommended prevention measures (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2 April 2020):

      Droplets/Aerosol/Airborne: The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact, most often via breathing small droplets in the air produced by coughing, sneezing, and talking.
      Prevention: Maintaining physical distance (6 ft) from others (especially from those with symptoms or asymptoms;              Quarantining (especially for those with symptoms); covering coughs; Using face covering.
      Contaminated surface of objective(s): Touching a contaminated surface and then touching their nose and face, resulting in breathing in mostly via nose.
      Prevention: Washing and cleaning hands often; keeping unwashed hands away from the nose and face.
      Recent NEW research and clinic studies indicated that the Nasal cavity and anoropharynx are the first infection docking sites for the virus expression by the enzyme ACE2, replication, and accumulation, and release in the duration (3~5 days) (Sungnak, W., 2020; Gengler, I., 2020; BO’Donnell, V., 2020). The nasal washing has been applied locally for prevention from COVID-19 in Thailand and resulted in much less of trasmission (Hall, C., 2020).
      Perspective prevention: The research and clinic studies would provide that effectively nasal washing could be a potential approaches for preventing from the pathway of spread, transmission and infection of COVID-19.

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